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Windows Server



    

Windows Server Core - Part 01    

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Windows Server Core - Part 01



Jan
11

Windows Server Core - Part 01

To manage a server that is running a Server Core installation and is a domain member using an MMC snap-in

1.    Start an MMC snap-in, such as Computer Management.

2.    In the left pane, right-click the top of the tree and click Connect to another computer. (In the Computer Management example, you would right-click Computer Management (Local).)

3.    In Another computer, type the computer name of the server running a Server Core installation and click OK.

4.    You can now use the MMC snap-in to manage the server running a Server Core installation as you would any other computer running a Windows Server operating system.

To manage a server that is running a Server Core installation and is not a domain member using an MMC snap-in

1.    If the server running a Server Core installation is not a member of a domain, establish alternate credentials to use to connect to the Server Core installation by typing the following command at a command prompt on your client computer:
cmdkey /add:<ServerName> /user:<UserName> /pass:<password>
Where:
ServerName is the name of the server running a Server Core installation.
UserName is the name of an administrator account.
To be prompted for a password, omit the /pass option.

2.    When prompted, type the password for the user name that is specified in the previous step.

3.    If the firewall on the computer running a Server Core installation is not already configured to allow MMC snap-ins to connect, follow the steps in "To configure Windows Firewall to allow MMC snap-in(s) to connect." Then return to this procedure.

4.    On a different computer, start an MMC snap-in, such as Computer Management.

5.    In the left pane, right-click the top of the tree and click Connect to another computer. (In the Computer Management example, you would right-click Computer Management (Local).)

6.    In Another computer, type the computer name of the server running a Server Core installation and click OK.

7.    You can now use the MMC snap-in to manage the server running a Server Core installation as you would any other computer running a Windows Server operating system.

To configure Windows Firewall to allow MMC snap-in(s) to connect

     To allow all MMC snap-ins to connect, at a command prompt, type:
Netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group=“remote administration” new enable=yes

     To allow only specific MMC snap-ins to connect, at a command prompt, type:
Netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group=“<rulegroup>” new enable=yes
Where:
Rulegroup is one of the values from the table below, depending on which snap-in you want to connect.

 

 

MMC snap-in

 

Rule group

 

Event Viewer

Remote Event Log Management

 

Services

Remote Services Management

 

Shared Folders

File and Printer Sharing

 

Task Scheduler

Remote Scheduled Tasks Management

 

Reliability and Performance

     Performance Logs and Alerts

     File and Printer Sharing

 

Disk Management

Remote Volume Management

 

Windows Firewall with Advanced Security

Windows Firewall Remote Management

 

Note

 

Some MMC snap-ins do not have a corresponding rule group that allows them to connect through the firewall. However, enabling the rule groups for Event Viewer, Services, or Shared Folders will allow most other snap-ins to connect. Additionally, certain snap-ins require further configuration before they can connect through the firewall:

     Device Manager. You must first enable the Allow remote access to the PnP interface policy setting. To do this, on a computer running Windows Vista or a full installation of Windows Server 2008, open the Local Group Policy Editor MMC snap-in, connect to the computer running a Server Core installation, navigate to Computer Configuration\Administrative Templates\Device Installation, and then enable Allow remote access to the PnP interface. Restart the computer running a Server Core installation.
Note that when Device Manager is used remotely, it is read-only.

     Disk Management. You must first start the Virtual Disk Service (VDS) on the computer running a Server Core installation. You must also configure the Disk Management rules appropriately on the computer that is running the MMC snap-in.

     IP Security Monitor. You must first enable remote management of this snap-in. To do this, at a command prompt, type:
Cscript \windows\system32\scregedit.wsf /im 1

     Reliability and Performance. The snap-in does not require any further configuration, but when you use it to monitor a computer running a Server Core installation, you can only monitor performance data. Reliability data is not available.

 

 

To Add New Hardware

Add / remove device drivers

Refer: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc753802.aspx

Server Core Installation Option Getting Started Guide

Applies To: Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2

This guide provides instructions for building a server that is based on the Server Core installation option of the Windows Server® 2008 or Windows Server® 2008 R2 operating systems. It includes information about installation, initial configuration, and managing a server that is running a Server Core installation.

What is a Server Core installation?


The Server Core installation option is an option that you can use for installing Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2. A Server Core installation provides a minimal environment for running specific server roles, which reduces the maintenance and management requirements and the attack surface for those server roles. A server running a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 supports the following server roles:

  • Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)
  • Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS)
  • DHCP Server
  • DNS Server
  • File Services
  • Hyper-V
  • Print Services
  • Streaming Media Services
  • Web Server (IIS)

A server running a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 supports the following server roles:

  • Active Directory Certificate Services
  • Active Directory Domain Services
  • Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS)
  • DHCP Server
  • DNS Server
  • File Services (including File Server Resource Manager)
  • Hyper-V
  • Print and Document Services
  • Streaming Media Services
  • Web Server (including a subset of ASP.NET)

To accomplish this, the Server Core installation option installs only the subset of the binary files that are required by the supported server roles. For example, the Explorer shell is not installed as part of a Server Core installation. Instead, the default user interface for a server running a Server Core installation is the command prompt.

Downloadable, printable job aids which include the most commonly used commands and procedures for administering Server Core installations are available at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=151984.

What’s new in the Server Core installation option?


The Server Core installation option of Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 requires initial configuration at a command prompt. A Server Core installation does not include the traditional full graphical user interface. Once you have configured the server, you can manage it locally at a command prompt or remotely using a Terminal Server connection. You can also manage the server remotely using the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) or command-line tools that support remote use.

Server Core installations of Windows Server 2008 R2 support additional server roles (see the “What is a Server Core installation” section) and Windows features (see Installing Windows Features on a server running a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 R2: Overview).

In Server Core installations of Windows Server 2008 R2, the Removable Storage feature has been removed. You can also remotely manage a Server Core server using Server Manager.

Who should use this guide?


The target audience for the Server Core installation option of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 includes:

  • IT planners and analysts who are technically evaluating the product.
  • Enterprise IT planners and designers for organizations.
  • IT professionals who are managing any of the server roles supported in Server Core installations.

Benefits of a Server Core installation


The Server Core installation option of Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 provides the following benefits:

  • Reduced maintenance. Because the Server Core installation option installs only what is required to have a manageable server for the supported roles, less maintenance is required than on a full installation of Windows Server 2008.
  • Reduced attack surface. Because Server Core installations are minimal, there are fewer applications running on the server, which decreases the attack surface.
  • Reduced management. Because fewer applications and services are installed on a server running the Server Core installation, there is less to manage.
  • Less disk space required. A Server Core installation requires only about 3.5 gigabytes (GB) of disk space to install and approximately 3 GB for operations after the installation.

In this guide


 

Refer: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc753802.aspx

 

Configuration and installation

 

Task

 

Steps

 

Set the local administrative password

At a command prompt, type:

net user administrator *

 

Join a computer to a domain

1.    At a command prompt, type on one line:
netdom join %computername% /domain:<domain> /userd:<domain>\username> /password:*

2.    Restart the computer.

 

Confirm that the domain has changed

At a command prompt, type:

set

 

Remove a computer from a domain

At a command prompt, type:

netdom remove

 

Add a user to the local Administrators group.

At a command prompt, type:

net localgroup Administrators /add <domain>\<username>

 

Remove a user from the local Administrators group

At a command prompt, type:

net localgroup Administrators /delete <domain\username>

 

Add a user to the local computer

At a command prompt, type:

net user <domain\user name> /add *

 

Add a group to the local computer

At a command prompt, type:

net localgroup <group name> /add

 

Change the name of a domain-joined computer

At a command prompt, type:

netdom renamecomputer %computername% /NewName:<new computer name> /userd:<domain\username> /password:*

 

Confirm the new computer name

At a command prompt, type:

set

 

Change the name of a computer in a work group

1.    At a command prompt, type:
netdom renamecomputer <currentcomputername> /NewName:<newcomputername>

2.    Restart the computer.

 

Disable paging file management

At a command prompt, type:

wmic computersystem where name="<computername>" set AutomaticManagedPagefile=False

 

Configure the paging file

At a command prompt, type:

wmic pagefileset where name=”<path/filename>” set InitialSize=<initialsize>,MaximumSize=<maxsize>

Where:

path/filename is the path to and name of the paging file

initialsize is the starting size of the paging file in bytes.

maxsize is the maximum size of the page file in bytes.

 

Change to a static IP address.

1.    At a command prompt, type:
ipconfig /all

2.    Record the relevant information or redirect it to a text file (ipconfig /all >ipconfig.txt).

3.    At a command prompt, type:
netsh interface ipv4 show interfaces

4.    Verify that there is an interface list.

5.    At a command prompt, type:
netsh interface ipv4 set address name <ID from interface list> source=static address=<preferred IP address> gateway=<gateway address>

6.    Verify by typing ipconfig /all at a command prompt and checking that DHCP enabled is set to No.

 

Set a static DNS address.

1.    At a command prompt, type:
netsh interface ipv4 add dnsserver name=<name of primary DNS server> address=<IP address of the primary DNS server> index=1

2.    At a command prompt, type:
netsh interface ipv4 add dnsserver name=<name of secondary DNS server> address=<IP address of the secondary DNS server> index=2

3.    Repeat as appropriate to add additional servers.

4.    Verify by typing ipconfig /all and checking that all the addresses are correct.

 

Change to a DHCP-provided IP address from a static IP address.

1.    At a command prompt, type:
netsh interface ipv4 set address name=<IP address of local system> source=DHCP

2.    Verify by typing Ipconfig /all and checking that DCHP enabled is set to Yes.

 

Activate the server locally.

At a command prompt, type:

slmgr.vbs -ato

 

Activate the server remotely.

1.    At a command prompt, type:
cscript slmgr.vbs -ato <servername> <username> <password>

2.    Retrieve the GUID of the computer by typing cscript slmgr.vbs -did

3.    Type cscript slmgr.vbs -dli <GUID>

4.    Verify that License status is set to Licensed (activated).

 

Note

 

If Slmgr.vbs fails to activate the computer, the resulting error message advises you to run Slui.exe, along with the error code for more information. Slui.exe is not included in Server Core installations—it is available in Windows Vista and full installations of Windows Server 2008.

 

Networking and firewall

Task

 

Steps

 

Configure your server to use a proxy server.

At a command prompt, type:

netsh Winhttp set proxy <servername>:<port number>

Note

 

Server Core installations cannot access the Internet through a proxy that requires a password to allow connections.

 

Configure your server to bypass the proxy for internet addresses.

At a command prompt, type:

netsh winttp set proxy <servername>:<port number>bypass-list="<local>"

 

Display or modify IPSEC configuration.

At a command prompt, type:

netsh ipsec

 

Display or modify NAP configuration.

At a command prompt, type:

netsh nap

 

Display or modify IP to physical address translation.

At a command prompt, type:

arp

 

Display or configure the local routing table.

At a command prompt, type:

route

 

View or configure DNS server settings.

At a command prompt, type:

nslookup

 

Display protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections.

At a command prompt, type:

netstat

 

Display protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT).

At a command prompt, type:

nbtstat

 

Display hops for network connections.

At a command prompt, type:

pathping

 

Trace hops for network connections.

At a command prompt, type:

tracert

 

Display the configuration of the multicast router.

At a command prompt, type:

mrinfo

 

Enable remote administration of the firewall.

At a command prompt, type:

netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group=”Windows Firewall Remote Management” new enable=yes

 

Updates, error reporting, and feedback

Task

 

Steps

 

Install an update.

At a command prompt, type:

wusa <update>.msu /quiet

 

List installed updates

At a command prompt, type:

systeminfo

 

Remove an update.

1.    Type at a command prompt:
expand /f:* <update>.msu c:\test

2.    Navigate to c:\test\ and open <update>.xml in a text editor.

3.    In <update>.xml, replace Install with Remove and save the file.

4.    At a command prompt, type:
pkgmgr /n:<update>.xml

 

Configure automatic updates.

At a command prompt:

     To verify the current setting, type:
cscript scregedit.wsf /AU /v

     To enable automatic updates, type:
cscript scregedit.wsf /AU /4

     To disable automatic updates, type:
cscript scregedit.wsf /AU /1

 

Enable error reporting.

At a command prompt:

     To verify the current setting, type: serverWerOptin /query

     To automatically send detailed reports, type:
serverWerOptin /detailed

     To automatically send summary reports, type:
serverWerOptin /summary

     To disable error reporting, type: serverWerOptin /disable

 

Participate in the Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP).

At a command prompt:

     To verify the current setting, type:
serverCEIPOptin /query

     To enable CEIP, type:
serverCEIPOptin /enable

     To disable CEIP, type:
serverCEIPOptin /disable

 

Services, processes, and performance

Task

 

Steps

 

List the running services.

At a command prompt, type either of the following:

     sc query

     net start

 

Start a service.

At a command prompt, type either of the following:

     sc start <service name>

     net start <service name>

 

Stop a service.

At a command prompt, type either of the following:

     sc stop <service name>

     net stop <service name>

 

Retrieve a list of running applications and associated processes.

At a command prompt, type:

tasklist

 

Stop a process forcibly.

1.    Use the tasklist command to retrieve the process ID (PID).

2.    At a command prompt, type:
taskkill /PID <process ID>

 

Start Task Manager.

At a command prompt, type:

taskmgr

 

Manage the performance counters and logging with commands such as typeperf, logman, relog, tracerprt.

See http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=84872

 

Event logs

Task

 

Steps

 

List event logs.

At a command prompt, type:

wevtutil el

 

Query events in a specified log.

At a command prompt, type:

wevtutil qe /f:text <log name>

 

Export an event log.

At a command prompt, type:

wevtutil epl <log name>

 

Clear an event log.

At a command prompt, type:

wevtutil cl <log name>

 

Disk and file system

Task

 

Steps

 

Manage disk partitions.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

diskpart /?

 

Manage software RAID.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

diskraid /?

 

Manage volume mount points.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

mountvol /?

 

Defragment a volume.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

defrag /?

 

Convert a volume to the NTFS file system.

At a command prompt, type:

convert <volume letter> /FS:NTFS

 

Compact a file.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

compact /?

 

Administer open files.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

openfiles /?

 

Administer VSS folders.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

vssadmin /?

 

Administer the file system.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

fsutil /?

 

Verify a file signature.

At a command prompt, type:

sigverif /?

 

Take ownership of a file or folder.

For a complete list of commands, at a command prompt, type:

icacls /?

 

Hardware

Task

 

Steps

 

Add a driver for a new hardware device.

1.    Copy the driver to a folder at %homedrive%\<driver folder>.

2.    At a command prompt, type:
pnputil -i -a %homedrive%\<driver folder>\<driver>.inf

 

Remove a driver for a hardware device.

1.    For a list of loaded drivers, at a command prompt, type:
sc query type= driver

2.    At the command prompt, type:
sc delete <service_name>

 

Appendix A: Sample Server Core installation - Unattend.xml

Copy this sample code into a text editor and save it as Unattend.xml.

Note

 

See the unattend file documentation for more information about unattend file settings. Windows System Image Manager, which is provided as part of the Windows Automated Installation Kit, provides an excellent environment for authoring unattend files.

<unattend xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:unattend" xmlns:ms="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:asm.v3" xmlns:wcm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/WMIConfig/2002/State">

<!-- Do not have empty elements. Delete such elements instead. Values should be assumed to be case sensitive. Boolean types have valid values as true,false,0,1 and are case sensitive. Other examples of case sensitive values are Drive Letters (only upper case C-Z supported), Format, Type. -->

<settings pass="windowsPE">

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-Setup" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="x86">

<UserData>

<AcceptEula>true</AcceptEula>

<!-- Optional FullName, Organization. WillShowUI for ComputerName, ProductKey default to OnError -->

<FullName>MyFullName</FullName>

<Organization>MyOrganizationName</Organization>

<ProductKey>

<WillShowUI>OnError</WillShowUI>

<Key>Sensitive*Data*Deleted</Key>

</ProductKey>

</UserData>

<ImageInstall>

<OSImage>

<WillShowUI>Never</WillShowUI>

<InstallTo>

<DiskID>0</DiskID>

<PartitionID>1</PartitionID>

</InstallTo>

<InstallFrom>

<MetaData>

<Key>/IMAGE/Name</Key>

<!—Specify that this is a Server Core installation. To install server, the value is Windows Longhorn Server%SKU%core. This example is for the Standard edition -->

<Value>Windows Longhorn SERVERSTANDARDCORE</Value>

</MetaData>

</InstallFrom>

</OSImage>

</ImageInstall>

</component>

</settings>

<settings pass="specialize">

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-Shell-Setup" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="x86">

<!-- ComputerName can contain no more than 15 characters -->

<ComputerName>MyCompName</ComputerName>

</component>

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-TerminalServices-RDP-WinStationExtensions" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="x86">

<!-- Enable support for pre-Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 Terminal Services clients -->

<UserAuthentication>0</UserAuthentication>

</component>

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-TerminalServices-LocalSessionManager" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="x86">

<!-- Enable Terminal Services Remote Admin Mode -->

<fDenyTSConnections>false</fDenyTSConnections>

</component>

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-Web-Services-for-Management-Core" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="x86">

<!-- Enable Windows Remote Shell Listener -->

<ConfigureWindowsRemoteManagement>true</ConfigureWindowsRemoteManagement>

</component>

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-UnattendedJoin" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="x86">

<Identification>

<Credentials>

<Domain>UserDomain</Domain>

<Username>UserName</Username>

<Password>UserPassword</Password>

</Credentials>

<JoinDomain>DomainToBeJoined</JoinDomain>

<!-- You can either have JoinDomain or JoinWorkgroup but not both.

<JoinWorkgroup>work</JoinWorkgroup>

-->

</Identification>

</component>

</settings>

<settings pass="oobeSystem">

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-Shell-Setup" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="x86">

<Display>

<HorizontalResolution>1024</HorizontalResolution>

<VerticalResolution>768</VerticalResolution>

<ColorDepth>16</ColorDepth>

</Display>

<UserAccounts>

<DomainAccounts>

<DomainAccountList>

<Domain>DOMAIN</Domain>

<DomainAccount>

<Name>TestAccount1</Name>

<Group>Administrators</Group>

</DomainAccount>

</DomainAccountList>

</DomainAccounts>

</UserAccounts>

</component>

</settings>

</unattend>

Note

 

For <computername>, if you use * the name will be randomly generated.

 



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